Meaning of Motor Development
Motor development in children refers to the development of a child’s bone, muscles and ability to move around and manipulate his/her environment. Motor development is the step to step ability of an infant to carry out various human skills like flexibility, dexterity, exploration, movement control, etc. we give full information about motor development in children read the full article for deep detail.
As a matter of fact, the ability to move is essential to human development Various motor movements or motor skills are essential for everyday life activities such as sitting, walking, running, climbing, catching or holding, jumping, skipping or throwing, etc.
Motor development can be developed into two sections :
- Gross Motor Development
It is the development of the large muscles in the child’s body. These muscles allow us to sit. stand, walk, run and other such activities. Gross motor development needs co-ordination and balance.
- Fine Motor Development
It involves the small muscles of the body especially in the small movement of the fingers and hands. For example, holding of javelin, pole, catching a cricket ball, discus, smashing a volleyball and gymnastic exercises with or without apparatus, etc.
Motor Development in Children’s
Motor development in children can be studied effectively under the following three stages of childhood.
I. Early Childhood (2 to 6 years)
2. Middle Childhood (7 to 10 years)
3. Late Childhood (11 to 12 years)
The period of early childhood starts from 2nd year and continues till 6th year. Motor development during this period takes place rapidly. In this period a child becomes, perfect in various fundamental movements such as running, jumping, throwing and acquires the ability to unite or combine these movements.
They can unite these movements efficiently under changing and difficult conditions. However, they become efficient in such a movement but even then competitions should be avoided at this stage.
The period of middle childhood starts form the 7th year and continues up to the 10th year. In this period children become active and agile. During this period, most of the children achieve mature patterns of fundamental motor skills. Their posture and balance become better.
They become efficient in movement coupling, movement precision, and movement flow. The speed ability develops at a faster rate. During this period, rules should be flexible, instruction time should be short and there should be minimum competitions.
In this stage of childhood cross and fine motor development activities are performed. The activities like yoga asana, gymnastics, Athletic, Swimming are good sports activities for this age group.
Ball games like Football, Basketball. Handball, Volleyball, Kho-Kho, etc. are helpful. Racket games like Badminton, Table Tennis. Tennis also helps to develop fine motor development skills.
Most of the children are master to most complex motor skills. They are ready to learn strategies.
Factor affecting motor development
The development and quality of a child’s motor skills are affected and influenced by many factors, which are discussed here :
Age or Maturity
Motor development does not take place immediately. It takes place gradually with age. Infancy and pre-school years are a period of rapid motor development.
It slows down in later years. Later childhood and late adolescence are periods of consolidation and therefore growth and motor development slow down.
Nutritious food promotes good motor development. The unhealthy food like fast food and junk food is an invitation to the number of diseases which hamper the normal physical, emotional and social development of children in many ways. A good nutritious diet promotes sensory development and makes them stronger.
Performing regular physical activities enhances motor development at a faster rate. However, physical activities must be according to the capabilities of children.
Those children, who do not perform physical activities regularly their motor development also becomes so slow.
Genes or hereditary qualities affect the motor development of individuals. They set limits for the development of motor abilities in the future even if environmental factors such as diet, air, and exercise, etc. are available adequately.
Encouragement, love, and security of children, help them to take risks to know more about the environment. This effort leads to better sensory development of children which is the prerequisite of motor development.
Generally, it is observed that boys are expected to be involved in sports in comparison to girls in most of society. Boys are given more opportunities to take part in sports activities.
Motor development of children is affected greatly by the opportunities and facilities available to them for play activities in schools, homes, and neighborhoods.
Play and play related activities are the most important factor that affects motor development in children. Actually, childhood is the “play-age” that lays the foundation for health, fitness and skillful motor development.
The practice of activities helps in developing skilled voluntary movements. Children practice seeing what they can do. They have no targets to achieve but are curious.
For this reason, they seem to love practice. This leads to motor development.
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source of information: gym trainers, physical teachers, athleanx.com